References for "Five Things Nurses and Patients Should Question"

Don’t automatically initiate continuous electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor for women without risk factors; consider intermittent auscultation (IA) first.

Alfirevic Z, Devane D, Gyte GM. Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal ssessment during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;5:CD006066.

Creedon D, Akkerman D, Atwood L, Bates L, Harper C, Levin A, McCall C, Peterson D, Rose C, Setterlund L, Walkes B, Wingeier R. Management of labor. Bloomington (MN): Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI); 2013 Mar. 66 p.

Lawrence A, Lewis L, Hofmeyr GJ, Styles C. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 9;10:CD003934.

Don’t let older adults lay in bed or only get up to a chair during their hospital stay.

Creditor MC. Hazards of hospitalization in the elderly. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Feb 1;118(3):219-23.

Gillis A, MacDonald B. Deconditioning in the hospitalized elderly. Can Nurse. 2005 Jun;101(6):16-20.

Kortebein P, Symons TB, Ferrando A, Paddon-Jones D, Ronsen O, Protas E, Conger S, Lombeida J, Wolfe R, Evans WJ. Functional impact of 10 days of bed rest in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Oct;63(10):1076-81.

Doherty-King B, Bowers B. How nurses decide to ambulate hospitalized older adults: development of a conceptual model. Gerontologist. 2011 Dec;51(6):786-97.

Padula CA, Hughes C, Baumhover L. Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on fu nctional decline in hospitalized older adults. J Nurs Care Qual . 2009 Oct-Dec;24(4):325-31.

Pashikanti L, Von Ah D. Impact of early mobilization protocol on medical-surgical inpatient population. Clin Nurse Spec. 2012 Mar-Apr;26(2):87-94.

Don’t use physical restraints with an older hospitalized patient.

Bourbonniere M, Strumpf NE, Evans LK, Maislin G. Organizational characteristics and restraint use of hospitalized nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Aug;51(8):1079-84.

Evans LK, Cotter VT. Avoiding restraints in patients with dementia: understanding, prevention, and management are the keys. Am J Nurs. 2008 Mar;108(3):40-9; quiz 50.

Evans LK, Strumpf NE. Two decades of research on physical restraint: impact on practice and policy. In Hinshaw AS, Grady PA (Eds.), pp. 167-184. Shaping health policy through nursing research. New York (NY):Springer.

Minnick AF, Mion LC, Johnson ME, Catrambone C, Leipzig R. Prevalence and variation of physical restraint use in acute care settings in the US. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2007;39(1):30-7.

Don’t wake the patient for routine care unless the patient’s condition or care specifically requires it.

Pilkington S. Causes and consequences of sleep deprivation in hospitalized patients. Nurs Stand. 2013;27(49):35-42.

Kamdar BB, Needham DM, Collop NA. Sleep deprivation in critical illness: its role in physical and psychological recovery. J Intensive Care Med. 2012 Mar-Apr;27(2):97-111.

Kamdar BB, King LM, Collop NA, Sakamuri S, Colantuoni E, Neufeld KJ, Bienvenu OJ, Rowden AM, Touradji P, Brower RG, Needham DM. The effect of a quality improvement intervention on perceived sleep quality and cognition in a medical ICU. Crit Care Med. 2013 Mar;41(3):800-9.

Don’t place or maintain a urinary catheter in a patient unless there is a specific indication to do so.

Gould CV, Umscheid CA, Agarwal RK, Kuntz G, Pegues DA; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPCA). Guideline for prevention of Catheter- Associated Urinary Tract Infections 2009. Centers for Disease Control. Atlanta (GA); 2009. 67 p.

Andreessen L, Wilde MH, Herendeen P. Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in ac ute care: the bundle approach. J Nurs Care Qual. 2012 Jul-Sep;27(3):209-17.

Saint S, Greene MT, Kowalski CP, Watson SR, Hofer TP, Krein SL. Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in the United States: a national comparative study. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27;173(10):874-9.


American Academy of Nursing Participants for the Choosing Wisely Initiative

Participants who contributed to all 5

*Diana J. Mason, PhD, RN, FAANPresident of the American Academy of Nursing. RN, PhD, FAAN, DHL (Hon.), DSc (Hon.). Dr. Mason is the Rudin Professor of Nursing and Co-Founder and Co-Director of the Center for Health, Media, and Policy (CHMP) at Hunter College, City University of New York. She serves as Strategic Adviser for the Campaign for Action, an initiative to implement the recommendations from the Institute of Medicine’s Future of Nursing report, to which she contributed. Dr. Mason is also a journalist who has produced and moderated a weekly radio program on health and health policy for almost 30 years. She served as editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Nursing for over a decade. She blogs for the CHMP and the JAMA News Forum. Since its inception, she has served on the National Advisory Committee for Kaiser Health News. The author of over 200 publications, she is the lead co-editor of the award-winning book, Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health Care and of The Nursing Profession: Development Challenges, and Opportunities, part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Book Series. Dr. Mason has received numerous awards for writing and dissemination of health-related information. She is currently engaged in a study of the intersection of media and health policy.


 *Karen Cox, PhD, RN, FAANSecretary of the American Academy of Nursing. Dr. Cox is the Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer of Children’s Mercy – Kansas City, an independent, academic medical center.   Dr. Cox led the organization to receive Magnet designation in 2003.  She received her AD in Nursing from Excelsior College, a BSN from University of Kansas, and a MSN and a PhD from University of Missouri – Kansas City.  She is a Pediatric Nurse Practitioner. Dr. Cox was recently elected to the American Hospital Association, Section on Maternal and Child Health Governing Council and appointed to the Children’s Hospital Association, Child Advocacy Committee. Dr. Cox was named a Fellow in the Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) Executive Nurse Fellowship Program 1999-2002.  She is a Fellow in the American College of Health Care Executives.  Currently, Dr. Cox serves as board member and immediate past chair of the Health Care Foundation of Greater Kansas City board of directors, a $400 million foundation dedicated serving the underinsured and uninsured in the Kansas City area. Dr. Cox has contributed articles to publications including Modern Healthcare, American Journal of Nursing, Nursing Economics, Seminars for Nurse Managers, Journal of Nursing Administration and Nursing Leadership Forum.


*Cheryl Sullivan, MSES. Chief Executive Officer of the American Academy of Nursing. Ms. Sullivan throughout her career has been instrumental in the development of significant federal and state health legislation and has provided leadership in government and university administration, and fundraising. Formerly, she served as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy for U.S. Senator Evan Bayh working with organizations and opinion leaders throughout the country to provide leadership in evaluating current federal policy and identifying and analyzing new initiatives.  Sullivan served as Vice Chancellor for External Affairs for Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, one of the nation’s largest urban universities.  Sullivan served as the principal advisor on social service policy to two Governors as Cabinet Secretary of Indiana’s largest agency, the Indiana Family and Social Services Administration.  In addition, Sullivan was the National Issues Director during the Gore/Lieberman 2000 presidential campaign. Sullivan has served on numerous national committees including the Children and Families Committee of the American Public Welfare Association and the Executive Board of the National Council of Governors’ Policy Advisors; and she was appointed to the Indiana Juvenile Law Commission, the Human Resource Investment Council, and Board of the Office of Women’s Health. 


*Mary Fran Tracy, PhD, RN, CCNS, FAAN. Dr. Tracyis a Critical Care Clinical Nurse Specialist at the University of Minnesota Medical Center and Adjunct Clinical Professor at the University of Minnesota School of Nursing and the School of Medicine.  Dr. Tracy is a Past President of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) and a past Board member of the AACN Certification Corporation and the American Thoracic Society.  Dr. Tracy currently serves on the American College of Chest Physicians Quality Improvement Committee.  Dr. Tracy was a co-founder and charter president of the Minnesota Affiliate of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists (NACNS) and is active in NACNS at the national level. She is Editor-in-Chief of AACN’s Journal Advanced Critical Care and has numerous publications and presentations.  Dr. Tracy has been a member of the American Academy of Nursing since 2004 and is a past Chair of the Academy’s Acute and Critical Care Expert Panel.  She is currently a Co-Lead for the Academy’s Choosing Wisely Campaign.


*Daniel B. Wolfson, MHSA. Mr. Wolfson is Executive Vice President and COO of the ABIM Foundation, a not-for-profit foundation focused on advancing medical professionalism and physician leadership to improve the health care system. Mr. Wolfson has been instrumental in leading the Choosing Wisely® campaign (, a multi-year effort engaging more than 60 medical specialty societies to promote conversations between physicians and patients about utilizing the most appropriate tests and treatments and avoiding care that may be unnecessary and could cause harm.  Previously, Mr. Wolfson served for nearly two decades as the founding president and CEO of the Alliance of Community Health Plans (formerly The HMO Group), the nation's leading association of not-for-profit and provider-sponsored health plans. During his tenure, Mr. Wolfson earned national recognition for spearheading the development of the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS™).Before serving at the Alliance of Community Health Plans, Mr. Wolfson was the Director of Planning and Research at the Fallon Community Health Plan. During that time, he led the product development team that launched the nation's first Medicare risk contract with the Health Care Financing Administration.  Mr. Wolfson received his master's degree in Health Services Administration from the University of Michigan, School of Public Health. Prior to graduate school, Mr. Wolfson worked in the Social Services Department of Massachusetts General Hospital, counseling and discharge planning for spinal cord patients, amputees and stroke patients.


*Alexia Green, RN, PhD, FAAN. Dr. Green is Professor of Nursing and Dean Emeriti at Texas Tech University Health Science Center.  She served as Dean from 2000 – 2010 and championed innovation including the use of telecommuting faculty. She now serves as a faculty in the Doctorate of Nursing Practice Program.   She is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing, a Robert Wood Johnson Executive Nurse Leader Fellow, and a past president of the Texas Nurses Association.  Dr. Green served (2011-2014) as Co-Leader of the Texas Team Advancing Nursing Health through Nursing, a Regional Action Coalition of the Initiative on the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and AARP.


Participants Who Contributed to Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring

Melissa D. Avery, PhD, CNM, FACNM, FAAN. Dr. Avery is Professor and Chair, Child and Family Health Co-operative Unit in the School of Nursing at the University of Minnesota. She directs the University of Minnesota nurse-midwifery program and has 25 years full-scope clinical midwifery experience. Dr. Avery’s research has included examining exercise to treat and prevent gestational diabetes and outcomes of midwifery care in vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). Currently she is exploring the promotion of women’s confidence for physiologic birth during prenatal care. Dr. Avery is active in issues related to interprofessional practice and enhancing the use of simulation in midwifery education. She was inducted into the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in 2009 was a recipient of the University of Minnesota Award for Outstanding Contributions to Post baccalaureate, Graduate, and Professional Education in 2011. Dr. Avery is a past President of the American College of Nurse-Midwives.


*Lynn Erdman, MN, RN, FAAN. Ms. Erdman is the Chief Executive Officer of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN). She previously held key senior leadership positions with three global health organizations: the American Cancer Society, Susan G. Komen and the American College of Surgeons. Erdman has also served in top leadership positions with several hospitals and healthcare systems. She also worked in women’s health, labor and delivery, high-risk obstetrics, GYN surgery, and hospice care. Throughout her career, Erdman has built programs and partnerships to improve women’s health by expanding access to care, making legislative changes, leading research studies and implementing prevention, treatment and early detection programs related to cancer. She was the first nurse appointed by the Governor of North Carolina to chair the North Carolina Cancer Board as well as the Cervical Cancer Task Force. Erdman was also the first woman and first nurse to serve as chair of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Committee for the American Cancer Society. In Charlotte, Erdman was the founding Director of the Presbyterian Cancer Center. She serves on the Board of Visitors at UNCG and since 1994, has served as consulting faculty for Duke University’s Graduate School of Nursing


Participants Who Contributed to Physical Restraints

*Amy Cotton, MSN, FNP-BC, GNP-BC, FNGNA, FAAN. Ms. Cotton is a senior health expert and dually board certified as a family and gerontological nurse practitioner at Eastern Maine Healthcare Systems.  She provides clinical care to patients in long term care settings and serves as EMHS Continuum of Care geriatric clinical expert and Rosscare’s Director of Operations & Senior Services Quality.  She is currently chairing the EMHS team addressing transforming and improving patient experiences to achieve service excellence in the health care re-design work of the EMHS Pioneer ACO demonstration grant. Cotton is the President of the National Gerontological Nursing Association, ending a two year term of service this month.  She is a regional and national advocate for health and wellness promotion in aging and serves as an international expert on aging in a senior non-profit organization in Bangalore, India.  Cotton is a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing and the National Gerontological Nursing Association.  She has come to appreciate the unique experience of aging by sharing an intergenerational home with her mother &father in-law, husband and teenage son.  


Christine Mueller, PhD, RN, FGSA, FAAN. Dr. Mueller is a professor and Associate Dean of Academic Programs at the University of Minnesota, School of Nursing and holds the School of Nursing Long-term Care Professorship. Her research career has focused on improving the care of elders living in nursing homes and her research focuses on factors that can influence quality of nursing home care. She has provided national leadership on teaching geriatric nursing, with a particular emphasis on using the nursing home setting as a clinical learning laboratory for teaching geriatric nursing. As a member of the Academy’s Expert Panel on Aging and former co-chair, she contributes to addressing aging and long-term care policy. Dr. Mueller serves on the board of directors for the Pioneer Network, the national organization promoting person-directed care in nursing homes.  She has called attention to the role of professional nursing in nursing homes that are transforming both environmentally and through clinical and organizational practices to support person directed care.  She served on the Technical Expert Panel for the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services nursing home Quality Assurance and Performance Improvement initiative.


Participants Who Contributed to Urinary Catheters

Connie Barden, RN, MSN, CCRN-E, CCNS. Ms.Barden is the chief clinical officer of AACN – the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. The first person to hold the CCO position at AACN, Barden provides strategic leadership that drives the development of clinical practice resources, products and programs that reflect state-of-the-art acute and critical care practice. She also ensures standards and guidelines that meet the rigor of a rapidly changing healthcare environment when AACN addresses current and emerging practice needs. She served as AACN president from 2002-2003, and led the task force that framed the landmark “AACN Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments: A Journey to Excellence.” in 2005. More recently, while tele-ICU clinical nurse specialist for Baptist Health South Florida in Miami, she co-led the task force that developed “AACN Tele-ICU Nursing Practice Guidelines.” Barden was previously director of clinical safety and innovation at Miami’s Mercy Hospital.


 *Ramón Lavandero, RN, MA, MSN, FAAN. Mr.Lavandero is senior director for AACN — the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses — and clinical associate professor at Yale University School of Nursing. AACN is the world’s largest specialty nursing organization. He supports the association’s communications, publishing, strategic alliances and member recognition activities. Lavandero served on the task that framed the landmark “AACN Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments: A Journey to Excellence” in 2005 and has been coinvestigator for three national studies about critical care nurses work environments. With a bachelor’s degree in nursing and a master’s degree in adult education from Columbia University, and a master’s degree in nursing from Yale University, he is a native of San Juan, Puerto Rico, who has consulted with nurses and health professionals in Latin America, the former Soviet Union and the United States. A fellow and incoming board member of the American Academy of Nursing, he was the first nurse to participate in the Hispanic Leadership Fellows program sponsored by the New Jersey Department of Higher Education, Woodrow Wilson Foundation and American Council on Education. His contributions to nursing have been honored by Yale University and the Nursing Education Alumni Association, Teachers College, Columbia University.


*Individuals are on site.